What is bentonite? What is the use of bentonite?
Bentonite is an inorganic material composed of clays or semi-clay, and of swollen minerals, which generally contain montmorillonite and a low amount of bilellate. For this reason, Bentonite is meant to contain 90-85% of the Montmorillonite mineral.
Bentonite is an aluminum phylocylate of the following formula:
(Na, Ca) 0.33 (Al, Mg) 2Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2. nH2O
Which is basically composed of Montmorillonite or Smectite Group minerals. The Smectite group’s minerals consist of doctrine and tertiary octahedral sequences. Deoxy Acrylate minerals include Montmorillonite, Beidellite and Nontronite. Tertiary octahedrons are hectorite and saponite minerals. Among the important properties of the family of smectite family, ionic succession, ductility, expansion and ion contraction can be mentioned. Due to weathering, smectite is formed in dry weather. In sedimentary rivers and lakes, kaolinite is often stable, although kaolinite and smectite sometimes turn into ilite in marine environments. Smectites from the Triassic to the present day can be found and, by increasing the depth, firstly into layers of clay, and then it can be converted into ethylene. Smectites are a type of clay soils 1: 2 widely used for absorption purposes. (1: 2 clay soils, a layer of aluminum and two layers of silica).
Bentonite is mainly based on two types:
- Swelling bentonite or sodium bentonite.
- Non-swelling bentonite bentonite or calcium bentonite.
The properties of the smectite family of minerals depend on their chemical composition and structure. In mineral sodium bentonite, ionic absorption, ductility, expansion and contraction are more than calcium. The dimensions of the sodium and calcium bentonite network will increase from 9.6 angstroms in normal mode to 20 angstroms if the humidity is 100 percent.
Swollen bentonites or sodium sodium bentonite can absorb and dilute their water by a factor of several times, so that it takes a gelatinous, plastic and adhesive state. This kind of bentonite is usually used in drilling and slurry fluids (walls).
Bentonite uses Drilling oil and gas:
Bentonite is used as a drilling mud for about 70 years ago due to its high susceptibility and high sulfur content and its sealing ability. This type of bentonite is more sodium or swollen. Calcium bentonite or acid soil is rarely It is used for this. For this purpose, bentonite is introduced as flower (a simple mixture of bentonite with water), known as flower and vanilla, and is injected into wells and drill holes to cover the walls as gel, crack and wall gaps. Boreholes fill up and reduce the water (injection) in the borehole. The lysis and its flow (due to flow) make it easier to drill the boreholes.
Bentonite infusion alone or with other materials prevents excessive water from penetrating into these specimens in boreholes or in adjacent juvenile formations. To test the suspension and the susceptibility, 22.25 grams of Bentonite are mixed with 350 cubic centimeters of distilled water, which determines the time of suspension and its concentration, and measures it with a specific concentration of 300 to 600 Yields, which Yield The minimum should be 90 bbl / ton. The mixture then passes through the pressurized filter and measures the volume of water obtained. Another method is a more sophisticated test, for this purpose, 1 g of bentonite with a thickness of 200 mesh with 350 cm The water cube is mixed and covered with a special coating, the remaining residue is dried on the sieve and weighed to determine the percentage of bentonite emitted from the surface. This figure is not Should not exceed 5.2% of the Atapolitis this figure is 8%.
The bentonite was the most used for drilling mud during the ten years 1971 to 1981 in 1981. As the western countries consumed about 1.8 million tons of oil wells this year, it was a sedykh type. Among them, the United States had the largest consumption In the industry, and in 1981 it alone accounts for 940 thousand tons, which is half the consumption of the western world. Where mineral water in the drilling area is prevented from clay type hormite, in other words, atopoulite and sepiolite It uses bentonite instead.
Sodium bentonite is used in oil and gas drilling. By releasing bentonite in water, relatively large sodium bentonite shells are converted to colloidal particles and release the electrical energy stored in the crystalline network and swell about 15 to 30 times the initial volume. This property is used to disperse heavy materials and cut off drilling, thus creating bentonite coating on the well wall, preventing the migration of oil and gas, and stabilizing the chassis and lubricating the drill. Bentonite also absorbs organic and inorganic materials from a mixture of water and helps to absorb its viscosity and enhance drilling debris. Hectorite also has similar properties.
Bentonite produces about 5% by weight of water-borne flowers, although in other types of drilling, such as oil or artificial ones, it is used more day by day, in some cases it is 1-1%, and is replaced by polymers.