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What is coal? What is the origin of coal? How is oil and natural gas from coal produced?
A non-crystalline, combustible solid that changes from brown to light to black. The gloss is dark, the density is from 1 to 1.8, the hardness is 0.5 to 2.5, crunchy, the rugged surface to the shellfish. The coal is classified according to the degree and physical properties of their constituents. The coal is mainly made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, which goes down to the high quality (anthracite), oxygen and hydrogen content. The existence of organic construction in charcoal and a series of well-known charcoal that begins with wood and ends in anthracite will not leave any doubt about the origin of the coal. Coal is a result of the biological changes caused by the increase in pressure and temperature rise on plants from very early days. Carbon in coal is condensed in various organic compounds, including carboxylic acids, and aromatic compounds with unpleasant rings (which in addition to carbon include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur).
More than two thousand years ago, coal was used in China, Greece and Italy as a fuel. Of course, mining began in the tenth century in Germany.
The origin of coal
Today, it is clear that coal has a plant origin and has been formed over long chemical, biological, and geological processes in the past, and has become a valuable resource that mankind uses today. All of the coal has not been created in one way, but due to the different geologic periods and their different conditions, the type of changes in the production of coal has also varied. Hence, today there are several types of coal in mines.
Coal formation processes
Plant material consists essentially of three major elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, as well as a small amount of mineral and nitrogenous materials. The major part of plants is cellulose, the formula C6H10O5, which is converted into coal by various biochemical and geochemical processes.
Coal and oil formation
Coal comes from the remains of trees, shrubs and other living plants. The appearance of these plants took place in periods where the weather was mild and damp. A reciprocal rotation in the creation workshop may well capture what is called the energy crisis. The whole thing started in billions of years ago with the process of solar energy conversion to the ATV. Chlorophylls and other plant pigments use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide, water and minerals into oxygen and energy-enriched organic compounds, and provide food for small and large organisms, including humans. This process also increases the amount of organic mineral deposits, such as coal hydrocarbons, petroleum and natural gas.
Processes of forming coal types
Coal comes from the remains of trees, shrubs and other living plants. The appearance of these plants took place in periods where the weather was mild and damp. Although some of the coal mines 400 million years ago and during the Silurian human silhouette, the silvery man appeared in the third period of the first geology. The characteristic of this period is the emergence of drought plants. But most of these reserves are about 250 million years ago and in the upper and lower periods of the Carboniferous, carboniferous or carbonaceous periods, part of the time, which dates back to the end of the first geological period, beginning at about 345 million years ago ) Came into being.
Then, conditions for the growth of enormous tropical ferns and giant flowerless trees were provided in large swamps. These plants dropped into the marshes after drying and disappearing into the marshes, resulting in accelerated aerobic fission due to the release of oxygen. Vegetation became a slime-like substance called Peat. Pits were tight depending on the degree of corruption, some brown and sponge and some black. The sea advanced on such meetings and the mineral deposits sank to them. Pitt became dry and hard under pressure. And turned into coal pit (lignite or lignite, also known as brown coal).
The greater pressure and time of the time was the production of pitch coal, which every 6 meters thickened the initial settling of plants to 0.3 m of coal. Even the higher pressures caused by the crust of the earth formed a massive boom, the hardest and most profitable coal, the anthracite. The quality of coal is determined by the ratio of the amount of carbon stabilized to the moisture content and the volatile matter and the material that is converted into gas by heat.
The origin of oil and natural gas
With all the extensive efforts and time spent on exploration and exploitation of natural gas and oil, humans are still unaware of the source of these materials.
Some facts accepted in this case include:
Oil and gas were formed from compounds with biological (biological) pressures. Most porphyrin-containing oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, either derived from chlorophylls or hemins of the red blood cell. Lipid (fats and waxes) creatures have provided a great source for the formation of oil and gas. It is possible that, in the current situation, oil-like hydrocarbons can be found in young marine sediments.